Posts Tagged ‘India’

Indian Rupee  joined the elite club after India showcased it’s economic prowess by launching an unique symbol for it ( ). The other currencies in the club being the Euro, US Dollar, Japanese Yen and British Pound Sterling. Indian computer manufactures have promised that the symbol will be incorporated in the keyboard layout within 3 months as soon as it is made standard, a Mangalore based company named Foradian Technologies Pvt Ltd has already come up with a font supporting the symbol. The font is free to use and is available for free download from their blog. The instructions on how to use this font is pretty simple and detailed on their blog.

Foradian Url for font download :

Have fun!

The following pictures and details were posted on NASA’s website.


These images show a very young lunar crater on the side of the moon that faces away from Earth, as viewed by NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper on the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. On the left is an image showing brightness at shorter infrared wavelengths. On the right, the distribution of water-rich minerals (light blue) is shown around a small crater. Both water- and hydroxyl-rich materials were found to be associated with material ejected from the crater.

Credits: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS/Brown Univ.




This image of the moon is from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper on the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 mission. It is a three-color composite of reflected near-infrared radiation from the sun, and illustrates the extent to which different materials are mapped across the side of the moon that faces Earth.
Small amounts of water and hydroxyl (blue) were detected on the surface of the moon at various locations. This image illustrates their distribution at high latitudes toward the poles.
Blue shows the signature of water and hydroxyl molecules as seen by a highly diagnostic absorption of infrared light with a wavelength of three micrometers. Green shows the brightness of the surface as measured by reflected infrared radiation from the sun with a wavelength of 2.4 micrometers, and red shows an iron-bearing mineral called pyroxene, detected by absorption of 2.0-micrometer infrared light.

Image credit: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Brown Univ./USGS



These graphs show detailed measurements of light as a function of color or wavelength. The data, called spectra, are used to identify minerals and molecules. On the left are spectra of lunar rocks, minerals and soil returned to Earth by NASA’s Apollo missions, taken in the visible to shorter-wavelength infrared range. The blue bar shows where a dip in the light is expected due to the presence of water and hydroxyl molecules. To the left are model spectra for pure water (H2O) and hydroxyl (OH-).

Image credit: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Brown Univ.



These images from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper on the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft show data for the hemisphere of the moon that faces Earth. The image on the left shows albedo, or the sunlight reflected from the surface of the moon. The image on the right shows where infrared light is absorbed in the characteristic manner that indicates the presence of water and hydroxyl molecules. That image shows that signature most strongly at the cool, high latitudes near the poles. The blue arrow indicates Goldschmidt crater, a large feldspar-rich region with a higher water and hydroxyl signature.

Image credit: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Brown Univ.



Many small, fresh craters bear signatures of water and hydroxyl, which are detected as absorptions of infrared light in the range of 3 micrometers by NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Figure A, on the left, shows feldspar-rich terrain on the side of the moon facing away from Earth. The arrows point to the location of small, fresh craters. Figure B, on the right, indicates the reflectance as a function of wavelength for craters in Figure A. The water and hydroxyl signature in these regions is seen as a characteristic dip in reflectance in the infrared light near the 3-micrometer range, a region noted with a light-blue band. The dashed line shows background soil that doesn’t contain significant water or hydroxyl.

Image credit: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Brown Univ.

India’s maiden moon mission which terminated prematurely is now showing results which support’s ISRO’s claim of mission success.

Moon Chandrayaan-1, India’s mission to moon has found damp soil which confirms the existence of water near the polar regions of the moon. The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) calls this as a major breakthrough that international space scientists were waiting for in order to kick start the moon exploration program again.

The discovery was made using a Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument built by NASA to go onboard Chandrayaan-1. It is being thought that considerable deposits of water could be available around the poles of the moon. Speculations are on that moon has 1 litre of water in every tonne of soil.

This can be a very important discovery for the future of space missions as the moon can now serve as a base for the future deep space explorations. It is relatively easy to extract oxygen from water molecules and this oxygen can be useful to sustain life on moon for longer durations or to fuel the long distance rockets. Also building a space station can be relatively cheaper as compared to building and sustaining the International Space Station (ISS) which is essentially a spacecraft suspended in space. But on the other hand the conditions on Moon are pretty hostile, so techniques to survive and sustain research labs on Moon can help us in a longer run to learn how to handle some of the challenges we face while moving into deep space.

The astronauts from Apollo missions brought back samples of rock which showed some traces of water, however it was considered to be contamination from Earth as the containers in which they were brought had leaked and considering the bone dry nature of rocks from Moon they would have a greater affinity to absorb moisture from atmosphere.

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft which passed by Moon in 1999 on it’s way to Saturn provided signals showing detection of water/hydroxyl. The Cassini data shows a global distribution of water signal with the stronger signals received from the poles.

The Deep Impact spacecraft, as part of its extended EPOXI mission and at the request of the M3 team, made infrared detections of water and hydroxyl as part of a calibration exercise during several close approaches of the Earth-Moon system en route to its planned flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010.

The signals from three different instruments on board Chandrayaan-1, Cassini and Deep Impact Spacecraft answers questions that scientists have been long looking for.

A few days back, Rajesh Jain, MD, Netcore Solutions Pvt. Ltd. based in Mumbai, started a discussion on Facebook on “Mass Market Internet” talking about on the options we have for getting the millions of potential users on Internet who today either don’t have a medium to access Internet or a promising application to attract their loyalty. I wrote to him about my thoughts and below is the portion of email that I wrote to him:-

Internet Users:
Talking about Internet users, from my perspective there can be two broad category of Internet users.
The first ones are those people who make a consicous effort to connect themselves to the Internet and use applications delivered via the web. These are the users who are the only types of Internet users existing in India today. However the second category, which form the majority, will be those users who will be consumers of applications delivered via the web, but they may or may not realize about their connectivity to the web. From my perspective they are still Internet users as they still consume applications via the web. For them its like a service through cellphone, if you have the network you can make a call, if you have the connection you can access the application. The second category of users are the users who are illiterate or lack computer knowledge. But from this vast majority a sizeable number of them do use cellphones. For these users educating them of computers is a lengthy and expensive process, probably more expensive than setting up the Internet access infrastructure in place. For these users, a computer keyboard is more complicated to use rather than the keyboard of a cellphone or the remote control of a TV.
To get the numbers of Internet users in India to a higher point, it is important that the second category of users come online and start consuming applications regardless they know about it or not.

Medium of access:
Internet penetration not only in remote places or villages, but in small and medium towns in India is still a bottle neck. In these places, the dial-up is still the primary medium of access. Also in some of the places, the telephone exchanges have very limited capacity and the lines are prone to noise and interference. In such places, better Internet experience can be achieved through satellite Internet. At least better than dial up.

Access Device:
Television and the cellphones are the devices which have the most penetration in our country and these two are the devices, which are capable of delivering applications via Internet.
Type of Application:
From my perspective, interactive and entertainment applications will be the primary driving factor for Internet usage. Today, social networking sites are the most visited websites as they let you interact with other users in a variety of way. Even though video hosting is expensive, there are many sites which provide access to entertainment videos as there is a tremendous demand for it.
So what would be the type of applications.

Example 1. Consider a house or community which has a satellite television and Internet delivered via satellite (the connection can be a DTH connection). Apart from the standard channels, the user can tune into Netflix Internet TV by just click of a remote.
Example 2. Emails has been used via Internet since a long time now, consider a service which lets users send small emails as text messages to cellphone. So I can send an email to <mydadnumber> which actually goes to an application on the email server which in turn splits the email (if needed) and sends it as an SMS to the end user, when the end user replies (keeping the subject intact) his reply is converted back in to an email and delivered in to the inbox of the original sender.